Environmental restoration is a value-laden activity. It takes place within a societal framework of ethics, laws and politics. Ethical values influence which actions are considered appropriate by society, laws determine what is legally required or permissible and policies govern how things are done. What is ecologically desirable is not always socially acceptable. This course considers the philosophy and ethics of restoration and introduces the legal and policy frameworks within which environmental restoration takes place, and which play a critical role in dealing with the practical issues of carrying out a restoration project.